Perceptions of the Nord Stream pipelines – between energy security, climate policy and national energy policies

Although the Nord Stream pipelines have already been the subject of various studies, there is a lack of holistic and comparative research on the discourses accompanying Nord Stream and the external actors involved in these discourses. In the context of political polarization during the construction of Nord Stream 2, some countries in the Baltic Sea region strengthened their bilateral relations with, for example, the US, while regional actors and structures were weakened. In addition, these interactions and relationships must be classified within the framework of an Eastern energy market that has often diverged in terms of politics, market economy and technology. In the context of the war in Ukraine, the geopolitical relevance of Nord Stream 2 and Nord Stream 1 has become apparent.

This work package focuses on the following research questions: How are  the Nord Stream pipelines perceived by the Baltic Sea countries, the EU, Russia and the US? What is the role of law and legal policy in managing Nord Stream 2 and the conflicts associated with it? What measures need to be taken to develop energy security in the Baltic Sea region?